Severe drought, poor economic situation, poor irrigation canals, Karezes and unemployment of young people and unavailability of labor works, lack of certified wheat seed and chemical fertilizer are the main causes of food insecurity in the country. The majority of the people in Afghanistan are engaged directly or indirectly to agriculture sector related livelihoods. Over time, ADA has developed its expertise in agriculture, horticulture & livestock and is making a significant contribution to development, promotion and marketing of this sector. The agriculture sector is being a major livelihood provider for most of the rural communities in Afghanistan either directly or indirectly have been a focused area for ADA intervention with the aim to uplift, improve and sustain rural livelihoods coping mechanism. Southern region of Afghanistan has been a focused area for agricultural/horticultural support activities. ADA helped to establish number of orchards/demo plots, nurseries, local storage facilities, irrigation systems, cooperative establishment and trade associations. In addition capacity building and providing trainings to farmer and fruit growers, exposure and market linkage, post-harvest practices, fruit dehydration/packaging/marketing and facilitating improvement of other support infrastructures were also undertaken. Agriculture and Livestock form an important section of rural living in Afghanistan. It is also a major contributor to food and income of communities; such as, Kochies (Nomads) who often do not have a fixed space for living and indulging in other modes of livelihoods. In order to protect and improve the benefits; these people get from livestock, it’s very important that they get the basic know-how and awareness about how to keep animals healthy, productive and utilize their products in a much economical and profitable way. Thus it becomes necessary to protect, support and expand infrastructures and services being carried out for this purpose. In addition to this, it is important to educate and train these people to try non-conventional methods of keeping and rearing livestock while approaching product markets/consumer groups with variety and safety in products. This can pave the way for increased and sustained income for them. Females normally have a major role to play in keeping the house-hold livestock, thus the project aims to benefit maximum females through training, awareness raising and capacity building components of this sector of interest. Afghanistan has lost almost all the infrastructures in long war and internal conflict. Institutions, organizations, schools, hospitals, businesses, job opportunities, agriculture, livestock, horticulture and irrigation have been suffered on a tremendous scale. Nothing or very little of all this is left. The agricultural and livestock activities have been adversely affected by drought and insecurity. High livestock mortality rates and losses of weight significantly reduced the income of the people in the drought-affected areas. Livestock development could be a mean of reaching the poorest thereby reducing their vulnerability to opium and poverty reduction. More generally, revival of the livestock economy is a priority for poverty reduction. In addition, because livestock are owned by almost all farmers – but particularly by the poorest and those living in the remotest areas – promoting livestock would have an impact on incentives with respect to the opium economy, security improvement including in the remoter upland areas that other development interventions cannot easily reach.